MATERIAL FOR PRESENTATION OF THE STATUSES OF THE CSTO PARTNER AND OBSERVER UNDER THE CSTO
The beginning of the process of military-political integration in the post-Soviet territory was laid at the end of the 20th century, when the European security system that emerged from the Second World War ceased to exist. The resulting void space stimulated the establishment of the “right of the powerful” on the international arena, the use of forcible methods to achieve foreign policy goals.
The dangers posed by the collapse of decades-old mechanisms of mutual deterrence were further emphasized by the aggravation of the situation in Afghanistan, a periodic spike in tension in the Caucasus region, ambiguities with the implementation of the Treaty on conventional armed forces in Europe, and the proximity of NATO military infrastructure to the western borders of the post-Soviet territory.
Under the current conditions, a number of states that have formed in this region have shown interest in active and substantive cooperation in the field of security.
On May 15, 1992, in Tashkent (the Republic of Uzbekistan) a Collective Security Treaty was signed, providing for an unprecedented level of integration of the member states in the military-political sphere in the post-Soviet territory. The Article 2 of this document is of key importance. This Article stipulates the obligation to put in action a mechanism for joint consultations in the event of a threat to the security, territorial integrity and sovereignty of one or more of the participating states. The Article 4 is in particular important, which reads: “If one of the states - participants is the target of aggression (an armed attack threatening security, stability, territorial integrity and sovereignty), it will be considered by the participating states as aggression (armed attack threatening security, stability, territorial integrity and sovereignty) against all states parties to this Treaty.
In case of aggression (an armed attack that threatens security, stability, territorial integrity and sovereignty) against any of the participating states, all other participating states, at the request of that participating state, will immediately provide it with the necessary assistance, including military assistance, and will also provide support to those in their disposal of funds in the exercise of the right to collective defense in accordance with the Article 51 of the UN Charter.
States Parties shall immediately notify the United Nations Security Council of measures taken pursuant to this Article. In implementing these measures, participating states will adhere to the relevant provisions of the UN Charter. ”
The time after the signing of the Treaty was a period of strong development of the regulatory framework of military-political and military-technical cooperation, and the establishment of a system of foreign policy coordination.
In order to improve the format of cooperation between the member states parties to the Treaty, on October 7, 2002 in Chisinau (the Republic of Moldova) the Charter of the Collective Security Treaty Organization was signed, which legally formalized the creation of the Collective Security Treaty Organization.
The Article 3 of the CSTO Charter defines the goals of the Organization as strengthening peace, international and regional security and stability, collective defense of the independence, territorial integrity and sovereignty of member states, the priority of which member states give to political means.
The Charter does not affect the rights and obligations of member states under other international treaties to which they are parties.
In accordance with the Article 7 of the Charter, the CSTO member states take joint measures to form within its framework an effective collective security system that provides collective protection in the event of a threat to security, stability, territorial integrity and sovereignty and exercise the right to collective defense, including the creation of coalition (collective ) forces of the Organization, regional (combined) groupings of troops (forces), peacekeeping forces, integrated systems and bodies of command and control, and military infrastructure.
The adoption of the Charter gave an impetus to the process that led to the formation of the current clear organizational structure of the CSTO, consisting of statutory, permanent and subsidiary bodies and allowing to successfully solve the tasks facing the Organization. This structure is provided with a powerful and constantly evolving information-analytical and information-technological base.
In accordance with the Article 13 of the CSTO Charter, the legislative body of the Organization is <b>the Collective Security Council (CSC)<b>, which determines the strategy, main directions and prospects for the development of military-political integration within the CSTO; coordinates the interaction of member states in the military-political sphere; improves the collective security system, develops and deepens cooperation in the military-political, military-technical and other fields, defines the main directions of joint work to counter modern challenges and threats, organizes peacekeeping. The CSC includes (depending on the distribution of powers at the national level) the heads of state or government of the CSTO member states.
The Council of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, the Council of Ministers of Defense and the Committee of Secretaries of Security Councils of the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CMFA, CMD, KSSC) are respectively advisory and executive bodies in the fields of foreign and military policy, military development and military-technical cooperation, as well as ensuring national security. They organize the implementation of decisions and recommendations of the CSTO Collective Security Council, coordinate the activities of member states, facilitate the maintenance of contacts and consultations between them, develop proposals, and consider operational issues of cooperation in their areas of work.
Coordination of the interaction of member states in the implementation of decisions taken between sessions of the CSTO CSC is carried out by the Permanent Council of the Organization, consisting of Permanent and Plenipotentiary Representatives appointed by the member states. The tasks of the Permanent Council, in addition to the aforecited, include analysis of the situation, the rapid exchange of information on pressing issues of ensuring national, regional and international security, participation in the preparation of decisions and meetings of the statutory bodies of the Organization - the CSC, the CMFA, the CMD and the CSSC.